Researchers looked at nearly 100,000 women who had breast implants.
Women with silicone implants had a risk of arthritis six times higher than the general population.
They also had a 4.5-fold increased risk of stillbirth and a risk four times greater of developing melanoma.
Compared to women with saline implants, those with silicone implants were almost twice as likely to have scarring around their implant.
The team, from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, told Daily Mail that its study is the largest of breast implant outcomes to date and the findings are important to help women choose the implant they feel is right for them.
The most popular implants approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are silicone implants and implants filled with a saline solution.
Silicone implants use shells filled with a plastic gel while saline implants use silicone shells filled with a sterile saline solution.
For breast reconstruction, the rebuilding of a breast, both implants are approved for women of all ages.
For breast augmentation, meant to increase the size or change the shape of a breast, saline implants are approved for women aged 18 or older and silicone implants are approved for women aged 22 or older.
Many women say silicone implants feel more like real breasts than saline implants do, but they pose a greater risk if they leak.
In the early 1990s, the FDA prohibited silicone implants after several health concerns were raised about their association to a risk of cancer, connective tissue disease and autoimmune diseases.
No research established a definitive link between silicone implants and these conditions.
After silicone implants from two manufacturers were approved in 2006, the FDA conducted many post approval studies, but no researchers had analysed the database.